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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

虽然汉德曾在英国石油公司(British Petroleum)担任过多年全球品牌、营销与创新高级副总裁,但她现在却在从事更加环保的事业。Project Frog的使命是希望通过易于建造的空间(通常几天或者几个月便可完成),彻底改造建筑行业。相比教育与医疗等行业的传统建筑,Project Frog的建筑可以节省约50%的能源。汉德的计划似乎已经奏效:公司今年的收入预计将增加一倍以上。

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The National Basketball Association (NBA) Global Games is to feature two pre-season games in China between the Golden State Warriors and the Minnesota Timberwolves, the NBA announced.
Call Me by Your Name
consciousness

这位备受欢迎的英国女孩莉莉·唐纳森曾担任过“Vogue”这类时尚杂志的封面女郎,她展示了自己性感迷人的夏装,身着一件白色半透明的抹胸连衣裙参加了此次活动。这位三十岁的模特穿着一件近乎透明的礼服,看上去漂亮极了。
在观影从始至终,我都在问自己一个问题:这部电影到底在讲什么……这部电影的主题仿佛一锅杂烩,并不明晰。我希望制片人也在问同样的问题。
"Micro blogs and other new media give everyone a speaking platform. If you cannot face the criticism and cooperate with the public, you cannot work well." ZHAO BAIGE, NPC deputy and executive vice-president of the Red Cross Society of China

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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Enrollment: 503
1. Choosing a job based on compensation alone
I formerly had an Android device (even though I have had a MacBook since 2009 – weird, I know). After switching this summer, I quickly realized the power of iPhone “Reminders.” Each time a reminder is due, your iPhone buzzes and displays a pop-up. You can snooze it or mark as completed. In addition, you can set up recurring reminders, which are perfect for remembering to mail estimated quarterly tax payments, renewing subscriptions, running payroll and other things you tend to forget.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

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The unemployment rate has plunged over the past three years to 5.8% from 8.6%, but almost nobody, including the Federal Reserve, thinks the labor market is really that healthy.
7. 克里斯汀?斯图尔特

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • 红星美凯龙复制万达模式 未来8年建100个综合体
  • 当下楼市“虹吸”现状或加剧实体经济资金短缺
  • ['pri:vj?s]
    今年的获奖榜单如下:

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 卫浴行业告别爆发式增长时代 工程市场成必争之地, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

国家出台外贸新政策 照企再谋“海外圈地”

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

李克强浙江倾听企业呼声:22位企业家坐“主桌”

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    清华大学公共管理学院主任杨燕绥表示,这4万亿元养老金结余很多都在个人账户里面,现收现付的养老保险制度遇到了抚养比的挑战。
  • 尽管随着租赁成本的上升和失业率的下降,薪酬最终会会上升;商人们将会在招聘劳动力上付出更多的成本而且还有可能由于缺乏员工以增加产量而导致销售量下降的风险。
    China will not see nor allow massive unemployment of particular groups this year, as the government is capable of ensuring a favorable environment to generate jobs.
    52% of the world lived in extreme poverty in 1981. This number dropped down by 21% in 2010, as 721 million fewer people no longer live in absolute poverty.
    The report said there were now 594 dollar billionaires in China, putting China ahead of the United States' 535. However, none of China's super-rich make it into the global top 20.
    Lopez Short is the name of the game, judging from the red carpet looks of Beyoncé and Jennifer Lopez. Both divas went for thigh-high dresses to show off their gams4, with strategically cut out neck and shoulder detail, but where Beyoncé opted to stand out in fire engine red, J. Lo went for soft and satiny earth tones.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 房企扎堆改名 “去地产化”信号越来越明
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 国内多地探索“租购同权”市场变化仍待检验

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

如果你每周的周一到周五没有一天早晨醒来感到一种想要去工作的兴奋,那么这就是一个问题了。那意味着你没有能够享受你的工作并且你的工作正在破坏你的生活质量。如果你每天醒来,恐惧去上班,那么是时候辞掉你的工作了
adj. 深思的,体贴的
“All the regulatory bodies are looking to do this and more transparency is always welcome. But whether they get there is different,” she says. “Regulators talk about more transparency and lower fees but very little in terms of law.”
The Queen would have been down the stairs like a shot as soon as the aircraft came to a final halt.
Over the next few years, large residential buildings will have to comply with Local Law 87, which requires them to audit energy usage and keep systems running at peak efficiency. Residential buildings are the city’s largest source of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for 37 percent of the total. “The one hot-button topic is energy. How do buildings become more energy efficient?” said Dan Wurtzel, the president of FirstService Residential New York, which manages more than 500 properties. “If a third of your operating budget is related to energy and you can now reduce that cost, you can take pressure off the need for a maintenance increase.”
科技厌恶症。
Local educational authorities have since revoked Zhengzhou Boqiang New Idea Life Training School's license and launched an investigation into its record. Hauntingly, the school's website remains online, replete with photos of students in camouflage uniforms performing drills and attending what the site labels "wonderful lectures."

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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    n. 外表,外貌,出现,出场,露面
  • 特价家具定制产品不退换 商场先行赔付是噱头
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • population
    2016年全国硕士研究生招生考试周日结束后不久,教育部即接到考研试题泄露的举报。
  • The singer/songwriter Dua Lipa has been steadily releasing a string of singles since 2015, beginning with the flirty "Be the One" and finally hitting the jackpot with "Hotter Than Hell" – both collected here on her debut album.
    恭贺新年。
  • 《危险!》(Jeopardy!):这个游戏节目今年已播出50年(1964年3月30日首播),它证明自己不仅能难住观众,而且能令他们感到意外。不仅是因为主持人亚历克斯·特里贝克(Alex Trebek)留起了胡子(之前13年他都是把胡子剃得干干净净),而且是因为仍有些选手表明自己能刺激观众。今年刺激观众的是亚瑟·朱(Arthur Chu),他采用闪电战式的答题方式,在网上引起一片哗然。他的策略令人兴奋,当然也很奏效:他在锦标赛中夺得第二名(友善的本·因格拉姆[Ben Ingram]最后得了第一)。
    排行榜上前7所院校还是老面孔。澳大利亚新南威尔士大学商学院(UNSW Business School of Australia)澳大利亚管理研究生院(AGSM)首次上榜,排在第八位。
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    But retail sales growth softened to 10 per cent in October, betraying economists’ expectations it would hold steady at 10.7 per cent growth from September.
    Allianz
  • There is "credible evidence" Justin Bieber fathered a child after a backstage encounter with an older female fan, her lawyers have claimed. 一名女性的律师声称
    [kɑ:st]
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 煤炭钢铁去产能有望加量 或扩至水泥等四大行业 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

52个北京项目落地廊坊北三县

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

《绿色建筑节水器具名录》首公布 七家卫企首批通过审核

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

李克强:4月1日减增值税,5月1日降社保费率,全面推开

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

长沙楼市11月降温开局 成交下降市场渐趋理性

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Surveys indicate that a majority of women suffer or have suffered gender prejudice when looking for a job, because employers do not want to grant maternity leave. To avoid possible gender discrimination from employers as a result of their entitlement to maternity leave and increase their employment competitiveness, some female job seekers have reportedly chosen to get married and have their children before graduating from universities.
  • Best of luck in the year to come.愿你在未来的一年里,吉星高照。
  • 统计局:住宅销量温和上涨 房企开发意愿有限

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 小说作者安东尼·赫洛维兹(Anthony Horowitz)透露,新书《Trigger Mortis》为现代读者作了改动,包含反对吸烟的信息,而且首次有一位“直言不讳”的同性恋朋友出场。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 人们最为关心的问题是,2015年石油价格将何去何从?石油目前的低价位是不可持续的。许多产油成本较高的企业和地区都处于亏损状态。短期内这种状况也许还可以应付,但中长期来看,石油公司将被迫退出市场,进而带动油价上升。然而,最重要的问题在于:石油价格何时上涨,以及涨幅能有多大?
    Economic forecasters are counting on 2014 to be a breakout year. But whether the economy finally moves past its sluggish growth will rest on several forces playing out differently than they have since the recovery began. Some of the key questions:
    《帕丁顿熊2》
  • 我冒死地想一想,湖人队在几周后会不会也加入这一阵列呢?照目前这情况,他们必须打出史诗级别烂地比赛才能留住他们的选秀权(给费城的前三保护签位),问题取决于他们是会围绕现有阵容继续缓慢地重建呢还是为了得到下一个巨星扔掉一两个年轻球员呢。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 15. An Amazing Coincidence One of the studios with the most on-screen diversity — it released “Trainwreck” and “Straight Outta Compton” (if also “Ted 2”) — and with the most female directors is Universal, which, as of early December, had gobbled up almost 24 percent of the year’s market share.
  • 竞争从“线下打到线上” O2O成“救市良药”
  • 单词infection 联想记忆:

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 央行调查报告:52%居民认为房价高 难以接受
  • Household substance abuse
  • 建材后市有望得到提振
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

广州二手房成交升温:新房限价叠加洼地效应

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 限货令升级“掐”住物流 陶瓷商家或搬迁或结业
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 厦门信达定增募资13亿 布局“物联网+”、加码LED
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

“有个人给老板发了个短信,说他要离职了。”

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Effective bosses must be effective decision makers. He or she cannot vacillate over every tiny decision. Being able to make decisions quickly and decisively — and then take responsibility for the outcome (see number 2) — is an important business skill, especially when managing others。
上海独立IT专家李亦在接受《环球时报》采访时表示,智能手机数量激增是网民数量增长的主要原因。
There are a couple of other picks in play this year. There's the Lakers pick to Philly (top-three protected), a Memphis one to Denver (top-five protected), and the infamous Sacramento choice to Chicago (top-10 protected) that Philly actually controls because Sam Hinkie will have revenge on us all.
New employees at the company's Tulsa headquarters have little time to be shy: on their first days, they're seated at desks with a tub of candy. Colleagues often stop by and introduce themselves while grabbing a snack.
Sam Smith, 'The Thrill of It All'
许多管理者提到了一些极其失礼的情况。求职者:
"Many companies operating with reduced staff levels are bringing in reinforcements to relieve their overworked teams," notes Max Messmer, Robert Half's chairman and CEO. "While some firms are backfilling positions out of necessity, businesses are also hiring to accommodate anticipated growth in 2011."
源于:qualify(v 使具有资格;限制)
加里奥德曼饰演了愤怒的温斯顿丘吉尔。
[in'telidns]

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

决定房价中长期表现的关键:人口质量

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 在赛场上,绰号Baby的天才逃亡车手(安塞尔?埃尔格特饰)依靠专属的音乐节奏开车而独占鳌头。与梦中女神(莉莉?詹姆斯饰)邂逅之后,Baby看到了希望,想与以往不堪的生活断个干干净净。Baby被迫为黑社会老大(凯文?史派西饰)干活,在派给他的最后一单中,危机一触即发。面前是巨大的挑战,对他的生活、爱人和自由来说,形势都岌岌可危……
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • The Office for National Youth Campus Football said that China already had 13,381 "special football schools" as of 2016, and 69 counties are piloting programs for football in schools, the Xinhua News Agency reported.
  • 福耀玻璃半年净利下滑近5% 美国公司亏损超千万美元
  • “白”之禁忌
  • 朗诗加速布局美国市场
  • 据行业估计,到2020年,我国年度票房有望达到1000亿元人民币。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 木门企业经营成本压力大 外企争相“夺食”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • LeBron James
  • Trium在三个指标上名列第一:攻读课程前学员的工作经历、实现的目标,以及国际课程经历。该课程学员在毕业3年后的平均薪资排名第二(30.7003万美元),仅次于Kellogg/HKUST联合推出的课程。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

缺陷消费品召回管理办法出台 规范儿童家具市场

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